Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that occurs and persists in an individual after experiencing, witnessing, or encountering one or more actual deaths involving himself or others, or threats of death, or serious injuries, or threats to physical integrity.Women are more likely than men to develop PTSD.
The cause of PTSD
The occurrence of PTSD is linked to many factors, These factors mainly divides into the family and social psychological factors (such as gender, age, race, marital status, economic conditions, social status, work status, education level, stressful life events, personality, defense way, childhood trauma, family violence, war, social support, etc.) and biological factors (such as genetic factors, neuroendocrine factors, neurochemical factors, etc ).Among them, major traumatic events are the basic condition of PTSD morbidity and have great unpredictability.
Clinical manifestations of PTSD
There are three groups of core symptoms of PTSD: traumatic re-experience symptoms, avoidance and numbness symptoms, and increased alertness symptoms.However, the clinical manifestations of children and adults are not exactly the same, and some symptoms are unique to children.
1. Traumatic re-experience symptoms
The main performance is the patient's thinking, memory or dream repeatedly, involuntary emergence of the situation or content related to the trauma, can also appear serious emotional reaction, and even feel as if the traumatic events happened again.
2. Avoidance and numbness symptoms
The main manifestations are that patients try to avoid events or situations related to traumatic experience for a long time or persistently, refuse to participate in related activities, avoid the location of trauma or people or things related to trauma, and some patients even appear selective amnesia, unable to recall the details of events related to trauma.
3. increased alertness symptoms
The main performance is excessive alertness, shock reaction enhancement, can be accompanied by attention is not concentrated, irritability heighten and anxiety.
4. Other symptoms
Some patients may also show the abuse of addictive substances, aggressive behavior, self-injury or suicide behavior, these behaviors are often the manifestation of the patient's psychological behavior coping style. At the same time, depressive symptoms are also a common concomitant symptoms of many PTSD patients.
5. Symptoms of PTSD in children
The symptoms of traumatic re-experience in children include nightmares, repeated replaying of traumatic events, playing games related to the trauma, and being emotional or sad when faced with relevant cues.Avoidance symptoms in children are usually manifested as separation anxiety, clinginess and unwillingness to leave their parents.The symptoms of hypervigilance in children are often manifested as excessive startled reaction, high alertness, attention disorders, irritability or rage, difficulty in sleeping, etc.And the symptoms of PTSD may vary among children of different ages.